An alloy made out of iron, steel is used in various ways such as in construction, making metal tools and other applications. Thus steel is exposed to a lot of wear and thus must be hardened and tempered to withstand it.
Like coal under the earth turns to diamond under the heat and pressure of the earth the carbon in steel causes it to harden. Pure steel must contain 0.6 percent of carbon or higher for it to harden steel with less carbon content need to have other metals alloyed into it to help the carbon harden.
To harden steel, it must first be heated entirely, beginning slowly at the start. Then the heat should be concentrated on the tip or portion of the steel that needs t be hardened. Now the heated steel must be into liquid or gas to rapidly cool it. Oil, salt water and glycol polymers are some commonly used liquids to quench electric heater in Singapore.
After quenching the steel, it must be cleaned and prepared for tempering. Then the steel is heated again but not so much as during the first time then the steel is left to cool. Next if desired the steel can be powder coated which is applying a coating electrostatically, this coating is later cured under heat – the oven used can be bought from a curing oven manufacturer – to allow the coating to flow and form a skin. The powder used for this coating can be thermoset polymer or thermoplastic. This type of painting is tougher than the conventional paints used.
Glass is also tempered to make it stronger and tougher. For this the glass should be cut in the desired shape. This process should be done prior to cutting the glass. After cutting the glass check for imperfections in it like cracks by using magnifying glass or some other such tool. Next the edges of the glass must be sanded smooth. Washing the glass after this process will help remove the tiny grains of glass that was deposited when the edges were sanded. Next the glass should be heated using a heat treatment furnace. Next the glass must be quenched similarly as how the steel was quenched to cool it.
This tempered glass can withstand heat of up to 243 degrees Celsius and any temperature higher than this will weaken glass. Properly tempered glass can withstand a good pressure. When tempered glass breaks it is usually in small rounded pieces. Annealed glass is a type of glass that is tempered in heat treated during a different process.